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Exam Number : Google-ACE
Exam Name : Google Associate Cloud Engineer - 2023
Vendor Name : Google
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Google-ACE Exam Format | Google-ACE Course Contents | Google-ACE Course Outline | Google-ACE Exam Syllabus | Google-ACE Exam Objectives

Length: Two hours

Languages: English, Japanese, Spanish, Indonesian.

Exam format: Multiple choice and multiple select, taken in person at a test center. Locate a test center near you.

Prerequisites: None

Recommended experience: 6 months+ hands-on experience with Google Cloud

An Associate Cloud Engineer deploys applications, monitors operations, and manages enterprise solutions. This individual is able to use Google Cloud Console and the command-line interface to perform common platform-based tasks to maintain one or more deployed solutions that leverage Google-managed or self-managed services on Google Cloud.

The Associate Cloud Engineer exam assesses your ability to:

Set up a cloud solution environment

Plan and configure a cloud solution

Deploy and implement a cloud solution

Ensure successful operation of a cloud solution

Configure access and security

Setting up a cloud solution environment

Setting up cloud projects and accounts. Activities include:

Creating projects

Assigning users to predefined IAM roles within a project

Managing users in Cloud Identity (manually and automated)

Enabling APIs within projects

Provisioning one or more Stackdriver workspaces

Managing billing configuration. Activities include:

Creating one or more billing accounts

Linking projects to a billing account

Establishing billing budgets and alerts

Setting up billing exports to estimate daily/monthly charges

Installing and configuring the command line interface (CLI), specifically the Cloud SDK (e.g., setting the default project).

Planning and configuring a cloud solution

Planning and estimating GCP product use using the Pricing Calculator

Planning and configuring compute resources. Considerations include:

Selecting appropriate compute choices for a given workload (e.g., Compute Engine, Google Kubernetes Engine, App Engine, Cloud Run, Cloud Functions)

Using preemptible VMs and custom machine types as appropriate

Planning and configuring data storage options. Considerations include:

Product choice (e.g., Cloud SQL, BigQuery, Cloud Spanner, Cloud Bigtable)

Choosing storage options (e.g., Standard, Nearline, Coldline, Archive)

Planning and configuring network resources. Tasks include:

Differentiating load balancing options

Identifying resource locations in a network for availability

Configuring Cloud DNS

Deploying and implementing a cloud solution

Deploying and implementing Compute Engine resources. Tasks include:

Launching a compute instance using Cloud Console and Cloud SDK (gcloud) (e.g., assign disks, availability policy, SSH keys)

Creating an autoscaled managed instance group using an instance template

Generating/uploading a custom SSH key for instances

Configuring a VM for Stackdriver monitoring and logging

Assessing compute quotas and requesting increases

Installing the Stackdriver Agent for monitoring and logging

Deploying and implementing Google Kubernetes Engine resources. Tasks include:

Deploying a Google Kubernetes Engine cluster

Deploying a container application to Google Kubernetes Engine using pods

Configuring Google Kubernetes Engine application monitoring and logging

Deploying and implementing App Engine, Cloud Run, and Cloud Functions resources. Tasks include, where applicable:

Deploying an application, updating scaling configuration, versions, and traffic splitting

Deploying an application that receives Google Cloud events (e.g., Cloud Pub/Sub events, Cloud Storage object change notification events)

Deploying and implementing data solutions. Tasks include:

Initializing data systems with products (e.g., Cloud SQL, Cloud Datastore, BigQuery, Cloud Spanner, Cloud Pub/Sub, Cloud Bigtable, Cloud Dataproc, Cloud Dataflow, Cloud Storage)

Loading data (e.g., command line upload, API transfer, import/export, load data from Cloud Storage, streaming data to Cloud Pub/Sub)

Deploying and implementing networking resources. Tasks include:

Creating a VPC with subnets (e.g., custom-mode VPC, shared VPC)

Launching a Compute Engine instance with custom network configuration (e.g., internal-only IP address, Google private access, static external and private IP address, network tags)

Creating ingress and egress firewall rules for a VPC (e.g., IP subnets, tags, service accounts)

Creating a VPN between a Google VPC and an external network using Cloud VPN

Creating a load balancer to distribute application network traffic to an application (e.g., Global HTTP(S) load balancer, Global SSL Proxy load balancer, Global TCP Proxy load balancer, regional network load balancer, regional internal load balancer)

Deploying a solution using Cloud Marketplace. Tasks include:

Browsing Cloud Marketplace catalog and viewing solution details

Deploying a Cloud Marketplace solution

Deploying application infrastructure using Cloud Deployment Manager. Tasks include:

Developing Deployment Manager templates

Launching a Deployment Manager template

Ensuring successful operation of a cloud solution

Managing Compute Engine resources. Tasks include:

Managing a single VM instance (e.g., start, stop, edit configuration, or delete an instance)

SSH/RDP to the instance

Attaching a GPU to a new instance and installing CUDA libraries

Viewing current running VM inventory (instance IDs, details)

Working with snapshots (e.g., create a snapshot from a VM, view snapshots, delete a snapshot)

Working with images (e.g., create an image from a VM or a snapshot, view images, delete an image)

Working with instance groups (e.g., set autoscaling parameters, assign instance template, create an instance template, remove instance group)

Working with management interfaces (e.g., Cloud Console, Cloud Shell, GCloud SDK)

Managing Google Kubernetes Engine resources. Tasks include:

Viewing current running cluster inventory (nodes, pods, services)

Browsing the container image repository and viewing container image details

Working with node pools (e.g., add, edit, or remove a node pool)

Working with pods (e.g., add, edit, or remove pods)

Working with services (e.g., add, edit, or remove a service)

Working with stateful applications (e.g. persistent volumes, stateful sets)

Working with management interfaces (e.g., Cloud Console, Cloud Shell, Cloud SDK)

Managing App Engine and Cloud Run resources. Tasks include:

Adjusting application traffic splitting parameters

Setting scaling parameters for autoscaling instances

Working with management interfaces (e.g., Cloud Console, Cloud Shell, Cloud SDK)

Managing storage and database solutions. Tasks include:

Moving objects between Cloud Storage buckets

Converting Cloud Storage buckets between storage classes

Setting object life cycle management policies for Cloud Storage buckets

Executing queries to retrieve data from data instances (e.g., Cloud SQL, BigQuery, Cloud Spanner, Cloud Datastore, Cloud Bigtable)

Estimating costs of a BigQuery query

Backing up and restoring data instances (e.g., Cloud SQL, Cloud Datastore)

Reviewing job status in Cloud Dataproc, Cloud Dataflow, or BigQuery

Working with management interfaces (e.g., Cloud Console, Cloud Shell, Cloud SDK)

Managing networking resources. Tasks include:

Adding a subnet to an existing VPC

Expanding a subnet to have more IP addresses

Reserving static external or internal IP addresses

Working with management interfaces (e.g., Cloud Console, Cloud Shell, Cloud SDK)

Monitoring and logging. Tasks include:

Creating Stackdriver alerts based on resource metrics

Creating Stackdriver custom metrics

Configuring log sinks to export logs to external systems (e.g., on-premises or BigQuery)

Viewing and filtering logs in Stackdriver

Viewing specific log message details in Stackdriver

Using cloud diagnostics to research an application issue (e.g., viewing Cloud Trace data, using Cloud Debug to view an application point-in-time)

Viewing Google Cloud Platform status

Working with management interfaces (e.g., Cloud Console, Cloud Shell, Cloud SDK)

Configuring access and security

Managing identity and access management (IAM). Tasks include:

Viewing IAM role assignments

Assigning IAM roles to accounts or Google Groups

Defining custom IAM roles

Managing service accounts. Tasks include:

Managing service accounts with limited privileges

Assigning a service account to VM instances

Granting access to a service account in another project

Viewing audit logs for project and managed services.

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Google search antitrust trial updates: every little thing you deserve to understand (thus far) | Resources

Google is on trial for allegedly the use of underhand strategies to be sure it stays the realm’s leading search engine.

The U.S. Justice branch claims Google, which owns a ninety% market share in search, paid big sums to companies like Apple to make it the default search engine on products just like the iPhone.

These multibillion-greenback offers gave Google an unfair competencies, the DOJ alleges, making it virtually inconceivable for rival companies to compete.

The trial will closing 10 weeks and include memories from key figures like Alphabet and Google CEO Sundar Pichai.

The outcomes of the landmark case may deliver giant alterations to Google and the future of the cyber web. nonetheless it’s equally likely the trial will result in no adjustments and Google should be free to proceed working however it wants.

We’ll keep updating this article with the newest tendencies from this landmark trial.

because the trial is set to cover many Google search-linked concerns, we have equipped the updates by using theme to make the timeline simpler to follow.

Google search dominance Google credit its 90% market share to being a sophisticated platform (Sept. 12
  • John Schmidtlein, lead lawyer for Google, claims the business dominates the hunt market due to being a superior product.
  • Google argues that users can without difficulty change to rival search engines like google in spite of the fact that it’s the default.
  • Antonio Rangel, a California Institute of expertise economist, testified that Google’s defaults discourage clients from switching, asserting switching to a unique search engine isn't effortless.
  • He mentioned an instance where switching to Bing from Google on an Android 12 cell required 10 steps, describing it as “considerable option friction”, reports company Insider.
  • Screenshot 2023 09 15 At 20.54.05 800x328

    Screenshot 2023 09 15 At 20.54.05 800x328

    Google calls its competition ‘inferior’ (Sept. 12)
  • Google’s legal professional, Schmidtlein, argued in court that the executive is pursuing a regressive lawsuit.
  • He mentioned the claims changed into “all within the hopes that forcing americans to make use of inferior products within the short run will somehow be first rate for competition ultimately.”
  • Google is ‘using clicks in rankings’ (Sept. 20)
  • Former 17-year employee of Google, Eric Lehman, who labored as a application engineer on search excellent and rating advised the trial that “fairly lots each person is aware of we’re the use of clicks in rankings.”
  • He delivered: “That’s the talk: ‘Why are you making an attempt to vague this concern if every person is aware of?'”
  • Lehman additionally claimed that Google’s computer gaining knowledge of techniques BERT and MUM are becoming extra crucial than user records, and that Google will rely extra heavily on machine learning to evaluate textual content than person information.
  • in keeping with reporting from large Tech on Trial (via X), Lehman said: “We are trying to steer clear of confirming that we use user records in the rating of search consequences.”
  • The reporter X publish mentioned: “I didn’t get super notes on this, however I feel the rationale had anything to do with now not wanting people to think that search engine optimisation could be used to govern search outcomes.”
  • Search engine rivals and claims of harm Microsoft says Google’s cell search is a sophisticated product (Sept. 28)
  • CEO of promoting and web capabilities Mikhail Parakhin advised the courtroom that Microsoft’s cellular search is not nearly as good as Google’s cellular search.
  • He went on to assert that it might be “uneconomical” for Microsft to invest more into mobile search since the enterprise would now not be able to distribute it as scale, experiences Bloomberg.
  • those that were following the case pointed out that it can be unreasonable for Microsoft to claim it has unfairly been excluded from the hunt market if it had not invested in enhancing its product so that it may well rival Google.
  • however, Parakhin still accused Apple of unfairly refusing to accept as true with Bing as its default search engine: “My impression is that Apple doesn’t in fact believe switching….[T]hiya use us as a bargaining chip towards Google.”
  • Bing takes to the stand and highlights Google’s ‘much less evident’ benefits (Sept. 26)
  • CEO of advertising and net capabilities at Microsoft, Mikhail Parakhin, testified and highlighted a few of Google’s much less glaring advantages over rival engines like google.
  • as an instance, he defined that fixing error in enterprise hours on Google or Bing requires an identical effort. youngsters, because of Google’s higher person site visitors, businesses are more inclined to replace their hours on Google rather than on Bing or other serps.
  • Parakhin claimed this contributes to Google’s superior quality compared to other serps, reviews huge Tech on Trial.
  • DuckDuckGo calls out Google (Sept. 21)
  • DuckDuckGo founder and CEO Gabriel Weinberg told the court docket that altering a default search engine is “way harder than it must be.”
  • He added: “if you swap some of these defaults eventually you’re just going to be switched lower back to Google in case you do nothing.”
  • His feedback come after Google claimed that altering a default search engine is easy.
  • Search engine clients should not have a call, says DuckDuckGo (Sept. 21)
  • CEO of the privacy-focused search engine and information superhighway browser enterprise, Gabriel Weinberg, testified that his company had tried to negotiate offers to become the default search engine on some products. however, he alleged he changed into unsuccessful as Google already had offers in place, reviews huge Tech On Trial.
  • all through Weinberg’s cross-examination by Google, Google’s lawyer cited that DuckDuckGo’s market share is decrease in Europe compared to the USA, even in countries where a default search engine alternative monitor has been delivered.
  • Weinberg brought up in his testimony that he believed the option displays in Europe had been designed in a manner that didn’t present clients a big option, however insisted that a more efficient alternative display may be implemented.
  • Google default deal blocked opportunities for department Metrics (Sept. 21)
  • enterprise founder, Alex Austin, who served as its CEO unless most effective a few months in the past accused Google of creating an unfair search landscape with its default reputation offers.
  • branch Metric’s objective become to create a search engine in particular for apps, that could serve app page from search queries using a “deep linking” know-how.
  • Austin hoped mobilephone producers would roll out the brand new function to items, creating a brand new supply of ad profits, whereas boosting attain for app developers.
  • despite believing this might create a “win-win-win” condition, every business Austin pitched the idea to rejected branch allegedly as a result of contracts in location with Google.
  • Microsoft claims the search market is ‘bogus’ (Oct. 2)
  • Microsoft’s Chief govt Officer Satya Nadella, who was instrumental in the building of Bing, took to the stand and claimed that the thought that individuals have a choice when it involves search engines is “bogus”, studies Bloomberg.
  • He told the judge: “You stand up in the morning, you brush your enamel and you search on Google.”
  • Nadella added: “I see search or web search as the biggest utility class obtainable. we are a really very low share player. however we continue to persist in it as a result of we think of it as a application class we are able to make a contribution to.”
  • “It’s a tough game to make any breakthroughs, however nobody can accuse us of now not being persistent.”
  • Google owns the internet, suggests Microsoft (Oct. 2)
  • Nadella implied that Google controls the cyber web, reviews CNBC.
  • He observed: “everybody talks concerning the open internet, however there is truly the Google internet.”
  • Microsoft calls for search to be extra aggressive (Oct. 2)
  • Nadella claimed Microsoft is a “very, very low-share participant” within the established search market regardless of investing $one hundred billion in Bing during the last twenty years.
  • He referred to that the most effective intent the tech colossal decides to remain in the search field is since it desires to “make search more aggressive” by means of running it like a “public utility.”
  • AI may make the unfair search business even worse (Oct. 2)
  • Nadella told the court docket how he believes persevered developments in AI may make it even more durable for startup serps to compete towards Google, experiences the Verge.
  • The Microsoft CEO claimed there's a chance Google will birth signing unique agreements with publishers to educate its own models, which might ban opponents from crawling that data.
  • He stated: “I agonize that this vicious cycle I’m trapped in, is barely going to get extra vicious.”
  • Google search adverts ‘can’t be replaced’ (Oct. four)
  • Joshua Lowcock, world Chief Media Officer at a media company called commonplace McCann, told the choose that search ads can not get replaced by way of different digital advertisements, similar to fb ads – opposite to Google’s claims, reviews huge Tech on Trial.
  • He informed the choose that search advertisements are “obligatory” in any promoting crusade and admitted he wouldn’t inform customers to redirect advert spend to distinctive systems if Google improved its fees by 5%.
  • although, Lowcock did admit that advertisements on Google, Bing, YouTube, and Amazon cater to different degrees of the purchase system.
  • regardless of some competitors between Google and non-usual search engines for ads, this doesn’t undermine the market definitions suggested through the DOJ and the States. In other phrases, Google can’t argue that digital promoting may still be regarded a wide market simply as a result of some organizations shifted advertisements from Google to fb due to Google’s fee raises.
  • Google is branded a ‘benevolent dictator’ by using (Oct. 13)
  • Arjan Dijk, the Senior vice president and Chief advertising Officer at, took to the stand to talk about his company’s relationship with Google, which he described as “friendly” however “one-sided.”
  • Dijk then referred to as Google a “benevolent dictator”, claiming it left with little option but to cooperate with any alterations it decided to impose, reports massive Tech On Trial.
  • When Google’s lawyer go-examined Dijk, he changed into asked why he known as a query “dull and condescending” during his deposition. The query referenced changed into: “Is Google no longer allowed to make a income?”
  • Dijk labored for Google for more than a decade until 2019, earlier than he joined, and the road of questioning undertaken by using the defence perceived to trace that his exit from the enterprise changed into not amicable.
  • decide Mehta stepped in to flow the questioning alongside.
  • Expedia’s former COO claims advert payments to Google ballooned x10 – but traffic didn’t follow (Oct. 19)
  • Expedia’s former chief operating officer, Jeff Hurst, claimed the business’s ad prices to Google ballooned 10 instances over a 5-12 months period.
  • despite advertising fees rocketing from $21 million in 2015 to $290 million in 2019, Expedia’s site visitors from Google didn't boost.
  • Hurst cautioned this turned into as a result of Google started sharing its personal flight and lodge suggestions in its search results pages, studies the Seattle instances.
  • He instructed the court: “We had spent a heck of some huge cash on Google for no incremental company cost.”
  • With Google, you are more being attentive to them inform you what to do as opposed to [a real partnership].”
  • Google accused of the usage of deliberate tactics to enhance ad funds from marketers (Oct. 25)
  • Professor Wilfred Almadoss, an authority witness for the States who specializes in digital advertising, testified that Google has diminished the visibility of some really expert Vertical issuer (SVP) advertisers inside its search outcomes.
  • He claimed that these moves by using Google have elevated how a whole lot these advertisers need to pay in an effort to hold the same stage of visibility in the SERP.
  • Professor Almadoss additionally testified that time-honored search adverts support advertisers goal probably consumers.
  • Google’s default search offers Apple allegedly didn’t want a default search engine (Sept. 12)
  • The DOJ printed that Apple supposed to provide users with a choice display to select between Google and Yahoo as their search engine.
  • although, Google rejected this idea with the remark “No default placement, no profits share,” as brought up in an e mail.
  • Kenneth Dintzer, the lead lawyer for the DOJ, characterized Google’s response as a monopolistic action.
  • Apple regarded developing its personal search engine if Google deal wasn’t agreed (Sept. 26)
  • Apple government Eddy Cue claimed the enterprise changed into considering establishing its personal search engine if a deal with Google didn't materialize, in keeping with huge Tech on Trial.
  • The observation helps the DOJ’s claim that Google’s funds to Apple brought about the tech tremendous not to enter the hunt engine market.
  • If a competitor avoids coming into the market altogether as a result of Google’s default search engine agreements, it might be a simple anticompetitive effect of Google’s default search engine offers.
  • Apple ‘stated Bing is sophisticated to Google on computing device’ (Sept. 28)
  • Microsoft’s Parakhin claimed Apple government John Giannandrea agreed Bing is sophisticated to Google on computing device.
  • regardless of this, Google remains the default search engine on Mac computers.
  • Microsoft and the DOJ claim Google’s automated default fame with Apple deters rival companies from investing in making their items critical rivals.
  • Google can pay $10 billion a yr to preserve default status (Sept. 12)
  • Justice branch attorney Dintzer accused Google of recognizing the crucial of default fame and spoke of this turned into the explanation why the business spent more than $10 billion a year to brands like Apple.
  • Dintzer brought that ” this wheel has been turning for more than 12 years and it at all times turns to Google’s talents.”
  • He claimed Google group of workers had prior to now described losing the business’s search default status on mobile as a “code purple circumstance”.
  • Google’s counterargument stated that despite commanding 90% of the quest market share, it faces competitors from businesses like Amazong, Microsoft’s Bing and Yelp.
  • Google lawyer John Schmidtlein, added: “There are lots of approach users entry the net aside from default search engines like google and yahoo, and people use them all the time.”
  • Google’s search engine default repute on phones changed into a ‘precedence’ (Sept. 13)
  •  Chris Barton, who labored for Google from 2004 to 2011, stated negotiating deals to make Google the default search engine on cellular gadgets was a desirable precedence all through his time on the company.
  • He claimed that in return for default status, mobilephone provider suppliers and manufacturers have been assured a component of advert click on earnings.
  • This approach, relevant to the govt’s antitrust case, aimed to establish Google as the simple search engine throughout a number of gadgets, reports information Bytes.
  • Google faced competitors to develop into default search engine on mobile (Sept. 13)
  • Former Googler, Barton, emphasised that Google confronted competition from other search engines in fitting the default alternative for cell companies all through his testimony,.
  • In a 2011 e mail trade, Google executives accompanied that AT&T had chosen Yahoo as its default search engine, while Verizon had opted for Microsoft’s Bing.
  • Barton testified that he encountered a problem as a result of cellular carriers have been fixated on earnings share percentages.
  • He aimed to convince skills partners that Google’s first rate searches would cause extra clicks and improved advertising salary, even with a lower percent share.
  • Microsoft claims it offered to pay Apple greater than Google for default repute (Sept. 29)
  • Microsoft’s company vice president for enterprise building Jon Tinter took to the stand to speak concerning the lengths Microsoft went to with the intention to signal a cope with Apple.
  • The tech giant made an offer that could share more than 100% of its income. youngsters, Apple allegedly chose to remain with Google – which became allegedly offering 60%, studies big Tech On Trial.
  • He said: “We had been simply large adequate to play however doubtless not large satisfactory to win, if that makes feel.”
  • This means that Apple’s choice to make Google its default search engine was no longer entirely monetary.
  • Samsung ‘shut down default search engine conversations with Microsoft for Google’ (Sept. 29)
  • Tinter went on to reveal that Microsoft had also tried to pitch Samsung.
  • youngsters, he claims these conversations had been shut down by means of the tech huge of their early levels.
  • Tinter allegedly asked Samsung to as a minimum allow Microsoft to make it a suggestion.
  • Samsung reportedly instructed Tinter that the deals were no longer worth discussing on account of the enterprise’s ongoing agreements with Google.
  • Verizon seems to contradict Google (Sept. 19)
  • Brian Higgins, Verizon’s Chief consumer event Officer, claimed he didn't see the aim in making a really good search platform like Yelp the default alternative on Android telephones, reviews massive Tech on Trial.
  • His open-court testimony perceived to assist the DOJ’s argument that Google competes basically within the widely wide-spread search market, pitted against functions like Bing and DuckDuckGo.
  • Google, although, disputed this declare, arguing that it also contends with really good search systems like Yelp, Expedia, and Amazon for particular consumer queries.
  • Higgins also testified that Verizon didn’t are seeking bids from other search providers right through the fresh renegotiation of the default search engine take care of Google.
  • This contradicts Google’s protection that it obtains unique contracts through reasonable competition, as old years noticed competitors between Microsoft and Google for the default search engine place.
  • Pitching Bing to Apple (Oct. 2)
  • Microsoft CEO Nadella went on to claim that he has “focused every year of my tenure as CEO to see if Apple could be open” to changing Google with Bing as its products’ default search engine, reviews CNBC.
  • He mentioned that any such circulate would lift dangers, but claimed the hurdle could be overcome, pointing to Apple’s “turbulent” beginning with its maps app. He mentioned that the app still went on to develop into common regardless of its rocky beginning since it become the default map on Apple phones.
  • Microsoft become organized to take a multibillion-greenback brief-time period loss in a deal that could see Apple change Google with Bing as its products’ default search engine – however Apple noted no.
  • ‘Google is buying its approach to squelch competitors’, claims Samsung e mail (Oct. four)
  • An e-mail trade between former Samsung worker Patrick trade and his boss David Eunn in July 2020 discussed a new default contract with Google.
  • “The current contract is looking like Google will personal all search on equipment….this will completely kill all knowledge for any department search and other future features….[A]ll this should be killed if this Google settlement happens,” wrote Chang, stories big Tech On Trial.
  • His boss replied: “Google is obviously purchasing its strategy to squelch rivals….backyard of a possible antitrust action, I don’t see Samsung refusing these phrases.”
  • Google’s CEO raised considerations over default fame (Oct. 9)
  • Sundar Pichai expressed his subject over Google being Apple’s default search engine years before he grew to become CEO.
  • In emails written back in 2007, he informed Google’s co-founders Larry web page and Sergey Brin that not giving clients a decision of search engine resulted in a foul person adventure, studies Bloomberg.
  • He wrote: “i know we're insisting on default, however on the equal time I consider we should encourage them to have Yahoo as a choice within the pull down or some other effortless option.”
  • “I don’t feel it is a good person event nor the optics is tremendous for us to be the handiest provider within the browser.”
  • Google’s default deals ‘block rivals from as much as 50% of all search queries in the UK on my own’ (Oct. sixteen)
  • The DOJ’s financial skilled, Michael Whinston, testified that Google’s default fame blocks its opponents from as much as half of all search queries conducted within the US.
  • He instructed the judge: ” The energy of the defaults is very enormous. if you happen to see Google paying billions and billions and billions, there needs to be a cause. That’s the primary element that, as an economist, slaps me in the face.”
  • Whinston suggested that 33% of US searches at all times go to the default engine, which capability a competitor search engine would only be able to garner round 17% of US search site visitors, experiences Bloomberg.
  • Google’s crew answered with the aid of questioning Whinston’s credibility as an expert witness.
  • choose Mehta acknowledges complications brought about by means of Google’s default repute Oct. 25)
  • Jason Krueger, a product supervisor at Google who labored on Google’s Search ads 360 platform from 2011 until 2022, testified in regards to the vital role auction-time bidding performs in search.
  • He become also wondered in regards to the Google’s conversion facts monitoring equipment, Floodlight, which makes it possible for marketers to review the success of their campaigns, experiences big Tech on Trial.
  • Krueger claimed that advertisers could achieve “the actual identical result” with Microsoft ads.
  • although, decide Mehta cited that so as to achieve the equal outcomes with Microsoft advertisements, marketers would first should take further steps to import their facts.
  • The claims echoed outdated stories that whereas advertisers can achieve success through the use of Google’s opponents, they would first need to take additional steps to alternate Google’s default popularity.
  • The DoF alleged the extra steps acted as a barrier to thwart competitors.
  • probably anticompetitive behavior Google admits it quietly raises ad costs devoid of telling advertisers (Sept. 18)
  • Google has admitted to quietly tweaking promoting auctions to fulfill revenue ambitions.
  • the hunt engine “commonly” adjustments the auctions it makes use of to sell search adverts, increasing the cost of ads and reserve pricing via as lots as 5% for the typical advertiser.
  • For some queries, the tech huge may also have even raised costs via as a good deal as 10%, in line with Google ad executive, Jerry Dischler at the federal antitrust trial.  
  • Google tends “not to inform advertisers about pricing adjustments”, he delivered. 
  • If Google can carry advert expenses without dealing with gigantic competition, it could support the Justice branch’s case that Google holds an unlawful monopoly. here is an argument the branch can’t use against Google’s search engine itself, as it’s a free product for clients. although, they can argue that increased competition may have addressed other considerations, akin to privateness requirements, within the search industry.
  • Google’s Search advertisements 360 integration considerations make the difficulty worse, says Microsoft (Oct. 2)
  • The DOJ additionally hopes to show that Google used its search advert tools to place its competitors at an unfair expertise.
  • whereas Microsoft has taken steps to be sure advertisers can stream campaigns between Bing and Google’s search equipment, integration concerns with Google’s Search ads 360 persists.
  • Nadella introduced: “We maintain soliciting for them so as to add some features that we want and i consider they ask us to head pound sand.”
  • Google ‘hid and destroyed evidence’ (Sept. 12)
  • Justice department lawyer Kenneth Dintzer accused Google of “hiding and destroying files as a result of they knew they have been violating the antitrust legal guidelines”, studies Bloomberg.
  • “The sheer extent of destroyed files is stunning,” the DOJ claimed, stories quick company. “by using intentionally destroying worker chats and making repeated deceptive disclosures to the U.S., Google violated federal suggestions on litigation.”
  • In his opening statement on day one, Dintzer presented facts to exhibit that Google become knowingly breaking laws.
  • He pointed to an October 2021 chat message from CEO Pichai, which read: “want the hyperlink for my leaders circle day after today…can we trade the surroundings of this community to heritage off… thanks.”
  • When background is off, conversations are auto-deleted after 24 hours.
  • Google declined to remark.
  • Googlers were told to keep in mind of their language (Sept. 13)
  • Google body of workers have been allegedly informed returned so far as 2023 to keep away from using certain terms to stay away from being perceived as “monopolists”.
  • A memo written through Google Chief Economist Hal Varian examine: “We ought to be sensitive about antitrust considerations…We may still be cautious about what we say in both public and private.”
  • body of workers had been told to steer clear of terms like “market share” and “bundle”.
  • Apple has ‘lots of leverage in its negotiations with Google’ (Oct. 10)
  • Joan Braddi, Google’s vice president for product partnerships and the key negotiator of the Apple settlement, turned into puzzled by means of the DOJ to supply perception into what position Apple plays in search, studies The Verge.
  • Adam Severt, a branch of Justice lawyer, asked: “Would I be appropriate that, as a minimum nowadays, Apple has a lot of leverage in its negotiations with Google?”
  • Braddi, who's considered one of Google longest-serving employees due to the fact that becoming a member of the business in 1999, spoke back: “sure.”
  • Severt then followed up his query with: “can you consider of a further search accomplice who may have more leverage than Apple?”
  • Braddi responded: “no longer offhand, no.”
  • The alternate highlighted the overwhelming importance Apple’s function is within the search panorama.
  • The States’ witness points to capabilities remedies (Oct. 25)
  • Jonathan Baker, an economics student, testified for the States and addressed abilities remedies should Google be found guilty.
  • He informed the court that as a way to establish reasonable competitors amongst search engines like google, changing Google’s behavior would now not be adequate, per large Tech on Trial.
  • He stated: “just stopping the conduct wouldn’t eradicate the disadvantage that gathered from the previous conduct…It’s type of like if you’re boiling water in a kettle and turn off the warmth. The water stays scorching for a long time.”
  • additional criminal complicationsDOJ objects Google’s request to get rid of public from court (Sept. 18)
  • Google’s attorney Schmidtlein asked for discussions of pricing to take place in a closed session, reviews Reuters.
  • If this request become granted, the general public and press would be pressured to depart the courtroom.
  • however, David Dahlquist, senior trial assistance within the antitrust division on the DOJ, objected, arguing: “This satisfies public hobby because it’s at the core of the DOJ case in opposition t Google.”
  • DOJ gets rid of Google proof from its web page (Sept. 20)
  • Google attorney John Schmidtlein complained to judge Amit Mehta that the DOJ became sharing every piece of evidence with the general public.
  • The decide advised the court docket he turned into surprised to gain knowledge of the DOJ had no longer recommended him earlier than publishing facts on its web site.
  • DOJ legal professional Kenneth Dintzer right now apologized and all files had been then presently taken down.
  • Now that access to a must have facts has been taken away, it’s going to be a lot more difficult for the public to keep up with this landmark case, which could form the future of the cyber web. 
  • DOJ may start sharing facts with the general public once more (Sept. 26)
  • judge Mehta addressed the subject of the DOJ publicly posting proof from the trial.
  • A joint fame report from Google and the DOJ highlighted the quest engine’s main disagreement; how long Google might evaluate displays for confidentiality earlier than DOJ posted them on-line.
  • The ruling: Google and affected third parties could have a three-hour window moving forward after the DOJ provides them with show copies to evaluation for confidentiality considerations at the end of each and every trial day.
  • If all parties act at once, the public can are expecting the DOJ to put up admitted proof nightly to its website at round 8 or 9pm ET.
  • If there is a disagreement between Google or a 3rd birthday party and the DOJ, the posting may be delayed except the disagreement is resolved in court docket tomorrow.
  • Google explains how its advertising auctions work (Oct. three)
  • The department of Justice (DOJ) investigated Google’s promoting auctions by questioning Dr. Adam Juda, vice chairman of Product management in Search adverts first-rate techniques, experiences big Tech On Trial.
  • In these auctions, Google doesn’t at all times select the maximum bidder however employs a complex formulation in view that lengthy-term cost (LTV) offered through the advert.
  • Juda clarified that Google adopts this approach to keep away from compromising the great of adverts. If Google handiest preferred the highest bidder, it may lead to low-pleasant adverts unrelated to search queries, harming the typical value of Google advertisements over time. instead, Google ranks ads in response to bid fee, envisioned click-via rate (PCTR), and a “Beta” element estimating lengthy-term terrible outcomes. this is simplified in the method: LTV = bid fee x PCTR – Beta.
  • during this equipment, advertisers with lessen-quality ads must bid larger to comfy accurate positions. adverts with an LTV beneath zero are eliminated, enabling only bids with effective LTVs to compete.
  • Google then used makes use of Randomized Generalized 2d-rate (RGSP) auctions to decide on a winner. The ultimate winner among good bidders is randomized, and the winning bidder can pay a cost equal to the next-highest bid plus one cent.
  • Dr. Juda explained that randomization helps bids with a little bit lower LTVs nevertheless have a chance, and the 2d-cost approach ensures advertisers don’t be troubled about drastically over-bidding, leading to a extra strong and “advertiser-pleasant” mechanism.
  • DOJ claims Google isn’t transparent concerning advertising auctions (Oct. 3)
  • The DOJ argued that advertisers aren’t recommended in regards to the details of how the LTV formulation works or how their bids are ranked; it’s a “black container” gadget, as per Google’s inside documents.
  • whereas advertisers obtain an advert nice score from 1-10, based on the same inputs as the secret LTV method, the score itself isn’t used within the LTV formula. The DOJ appears to imply that advertisers may should place better bids as a result of they lack a clear understanding of how their bids are ranked.
  • The DOJ also cautioned Google has the means to influence ad expenses via time-honored “ad launches.” although Juda disagreed, the DOJ claimed that Google could boost advert expenditures devoid of tons consideration for competitors.
  • DOJ accuses Google of using unfair tactics to increase advert expenditures (Oct. four)
  • Upon move-examination from the DOJ, Google exec Adam Juda turned into requested if he supported a doc sent to the eu via Google declaring that it might “without delay affect [ad] pricing via tunings of our public sale mechanisms.”. He noted he did not.
  • Juda then instructed the court docket that “tuning” can have an effect on advert pricing and that it turned into “fair” to say Google had added ad income changes in a means that raises the charge-per-click by way of a purchaser that advertisers pay.
  • besides the fact that children, he later added when quizzed by Google that the search engine could not lift prices unilaterally.
  • Google team of workers warned to not use language that could may alert regulators (Nov. 8)
  • Arguing for the DOJ, Meagan Bellshaw move-examined Jamie Rosenberg, former VP of Operations for Android and Google Play, over an email marked “attorney client PRIVILEGED”.
  • in this e mail, titled “five suggestions of Thumb for Communications”, Google personnel were instructed they should still not use definite phrases because it generate attention for Google from regulators.
  • The doc stated: “words matter – certainly in antitrust legislations”.
  • The e-mail persevered: “Don’t focus on what have an effect on we could have on our competitors. We are not out to ‘crush,’ ‘kill,’ ‘damage,’ ‘block’ or do anything else that might be perceived as evil or unfair.”
  • “We don’t ‘leverage’ markets, products, or resources. the usage of the observe ‘leverage’ may also make you sound such as you went to business college, but it surely implies exploitation and an absence of customer option.”
  • “in case you really need to list a gaggle of competitors in a specific area, record as many as feasible (or at least clarify that it’s a partial listing).”
  • Google’s defence Google’s first witness defends search excellent (Oct. 18)
  • Pandu Nayak, Google’s vice chairman for Search considering 2004, took to the stand to discuss Google’s efforts to index the internet, eliminate inappropriate pages, and rank relevant, fantastic sites for clients’ search queries.
  • He testified that Google makes use of laptop getting to know technology to increase its search results like BERT and MUM, experiences Reuters.
  • Nayak’s testimony appeared to downplay the significance of search query extent, differing from Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella’s views, who argued that his business crucial extra search queries to increase the Bing search engine, but Google is blockading opportunities.
  • judge Amit Mehta requested concerning the value of “consumer interaction”. Nayak agreed it was critical however emphasized components like web page monitoring and infrastructure for web page alterations is additionally critical.
  • Google sees Amazon, TikTok and Meta as essential advert rivals (Oct. 26)
  • Google government Prabhakar Raghavan, who oversees Search, Search advertisements, and different Google items, testified that the search engine sees Amazon, Meta, and Tik Tok as principal opponents related to digital advert spend.
  • He claimed that Google’s total share of ad spend has been falling for years as the normal search engine market has extended. Raghavan counseled here's as a result of more youthful audiences decide upon systems like TikTok.
  • Raghavan went on to testify that Google makes use of its search ad income to improve accessibility to Google.
  • Google CEO particulars how Chrome helped develop Google Search (Oct. 30)
  • Google’s CEO, Sundar Pichai, turned into mindful as early as 2010 that Google Chrome would boost Google search utilization.
  • people who switched to Chrome from cyber web Explorer carried out forty eight% greater Google searches, whereas people who switched from Firefox did 27% extra Google searches.
  • Pichai said (as mentioned in WSJ): “We realized early on that browsers are crucial to how americans are able to navigate and use the web.”
  • “It became very clear early on that if you make the consumer’s experience improved, they would use the internet greater, they would have fun with the usage of the web extra, and they'd search more in Google as neatly.”
  • Google’s problem about Microsoft’s anti-competitive nature (Oct. 30)
  • in 2005, Google’s then-chief lawyer David Drummond emailed Microsoft complaining about cyber web Explorer 7’s search default status – the in no way-earlier than-considered letter became shared with the courtroom.
  • He wrote: “we are deeply involved concerning the competencies for harm to the aggressive system from Microsoft’s moves, primarily given Microsoft’s monopoly place with its windows OS and its IE browser.”
  • “by using pushing out an update of IE with a brand new search container that will default to Microsoft’s personal search product within the substantial majority of circumstances, Microsoft would gain a huge number of search clients for reasons having nothing to do with the merits of Microsoft’s search offering.”
  • “ultimately, besides the fact that children Google hopes that prison motion will not be essential, we respect that it's a foreseeable possibility. accordingly, Google requests that Microsoft take care to maintain all previous and future statistics relating to any plans to tie search to any Microsoft product or otherwise deprive buyers of a competitive alternative in search…”
  • Mozilla’s choice to swap Firefox default search engine from Google to Yahoo “degraded the consumer experience” (Nov. 1)
  • Mozailla’s Chief govt Officer Mitchell Baker referred to that switching the default search engine on the Firefox browser to Yahoo from Google “failed”.
  • In a videotaped interview interview from 2022 which was performed on the trial in Google’s defence, Baker brought up: “the hunt experience that Yahoo was presenting to Firefox users deteriorated.”
  • Yahoo paid Mozilla at the very least $375 million to be the default search engine on Firefox – a major sum greater than the $276 million Google turned into offering.
  • As a part of the deal, Yahoo additionally spoke of it might cut back the number of advertisements and present much less user monitoring.
  • besides the fact that children, the Mozilla boss claimed the enterprise did gradually birth to serve greater advertisements.
  • “I felt strongly that Yahoo become now not delivering the hunt adventure we obligatory and had reduced in size for,” she introduced, studies Bloomberg.
  • “The number of users who stayed with Firefox declined exceedingly during the years when Yahoo was the default.”
  • “Our users made it clear that they look for and need and predict Google.”
  • Expedia ‘on the edge of rebel’ over variety of adverts on Google’s search engines (Nov. 1)
  • Barry Diller, chair of IAC Inc. and Expedia, informed Google bosses that he was “on the edge of insurrection” because of considerations he had over the expanding variety of ads in its search consequences.
  • He informed executives that. the sharp upward thrust in advert quantity changed into making organic listings suffer.
  • “I need to say I’m on the edge of rebel now that Google’s actions are so punitive, now not only for Expedia but also for IAC and all of the players that rely on anything of a degree taking part in container,” he wrote in. letter returned in 2019, stories Bloomberg.
  • Google CEO Sundar Pichai testified that Diller become upset concerning the rolling out of Google’s further commute listings, which he described as “one of the vital established experiences we’ve built.”
  • Google’s RSAa ‘helped to enhance competitors’ (Nov. 7)
  • Google known as Adrienne McCallister, VP of global Partnerships with over 12 years at Google.
  • McCallister’s testimony concentrated on her position from 2019 to 2021, main negotiations for Google’s profits share agreements (RSAs) with main US telephone carriers.
  • RSAs contain Google sharing search advert salary with carriers for default placement of Google search on contraptions.
  • McCallister argued that RSAs greater competitors by way of differentiating Android phones from iPhones.
  • She highlighted the enormous placement of Google search widget and Chrome browser as well as protection improvements mandated by using Google for Android companions.
  • Google is ‘most advantageous in class’ (Nov eight)
  • Google puzzled Jamie Rosenberg, former VP of Operations for Android and Google Play.
  • Mark Popofsky represented Google and discussed a number of Android-linked subject matters with Rosenberg.
  • Rosenberg praised Android’s open-source imaginative and prescient, but the focal point turned into on Google’s necessities for OEMs and carriers through cellular utility Distribution settlement (MADAs) and income Share settlement (RSAs).
  • Google sees these necessities, including search preinstallation and exclusivity, as a method to compete with Apple.
  • Android doesn’t charge a fee for OEMs to license, relying on offers for earnings.
  • RSAs encompass “preinstallation exclusivity” for Google Search as a result of: “We suppose [Search] is most advantageous in classification.”
  • Google insists on preloading and default placement on Android gadgets to comfortable gains.
  • A doc printed that 11 Google cellular Suite apps are necessary in the present MADA template, with handiest 5 deletable.
  • OEMs can give default trade instructions on their web sites however not within the device stream.
  • Rosenberg mentioned the eu choice screen for search as a burden that encumbers the technique.
  • Get the each day newsletter search entrepreneurs depend on.

    Verdict. U.S. District judge Amit Mehta isn't anticipated to concern a ruling until early next yr. If he decides Google broke the legislation, an additional trial will make a decision what steps should still be taken to rein in the Mountain View, California-primarily based company.

    Why we care: If the united states executive wins this case, it might suggest Google isn't any longer automatically put in as the default search engine on usual products, which may threaten its position as the world's search chief. This potential rival groups like Yahoo could realistically stand an opportunity of taking Google's crown for the primary time, which may convey large alterations to the hunt panorama as we are aware of it.

    What’s at stake. The U.S. and state allies are not requesting money; they desire a court order to stop Google from its alleged unfair practices. This order may vastly affect Google's company. for instance:

  • The court docket could potentially break up up the company as an answer.
  • On a broader scale, the Justice branch might argue that it aims to steer clear of Google from the use of its alleged search monopoly to comfy exclusive offers in new markets, like AI.
  • This lawsuit is regarded one of the vital big challenges to the tech industry's dominance considering that the DOJ sued Microsoft in 1998 for its handle of the personal computing device market. if that's the case, the trial courtroom ruled that Microsoft had unlawfully tried to restrict the rival browser Netscape Navigator. Microsoft sooner or later reached a agreement that failed to damage up the company.

    If Google's lead attorney Schmidtelein appears time-honored, that may be as a result of he represented Microsoft in opposition t the DOJ within the 1998 trial.

    Deep dive. read the U.S. Justice branch's legitimate statement for extra suggestions on why it is suing Google.


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