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Exam Number : CVA
Exam Name : Certified Valuation Analyst (CVA)
Vendor Name : Financial
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CVA Exam Format | CVA Course Contents | CVA Course Outline | CVA Exam Syllabus | CVA Exam Objectives

Certified Valuation Analyst® (CVA®) Determine, Defend, and Maximize Company Value™

Business valuation is the "Gold Rush" of the century. 10 million small businesses will change hands over the next 10 years. Could you confidently advise your clients if they came to you faced with these issues=>

An opportunity arises to sell or merge the business.

They are faced with transitioning the business to family members or other partners.

They are looking to expand the business and need to secure capital.

They are taking on new partners and need to determine buy-in price.

They are reaching retirement and considering an exit strategy.

Business partners or shareholders are exiting, requiring the business to be divided or dissolved.

They are embroiled in financial litigation.

They want to focus energies to grow company value.

Establish your authority in matters of value! Bolster your reputation with your clients. Enhance your credibility within the business community. Demonstrate competency to the courts that you can articulate business value.


A. Purpose for business valuation 0.5%

1. Financial accounting

2. Tax valuations

3. Litigation

4. Merger and acquisition

B. Standards of value 1.5%

1. Definitions of standards of value, including

a) Fair market value (U.S. based definition as starting point)

b) Statutory fair value

c) Financial reporting fair value

(1) IFRS

(2) U.S. GAAP

d) Investment (strategic) value

e) Intrinsic (fundamental) value

2. Relationship between purpose of the valuation and standard of value

C. Premise of value 0.5%

1. Going concern

2. Assemblage of assets

3. Liquidation (orderly or forced)

D. Principles of value 1.0%

1. Value is determined as of specific point in time

2. Value reflects prospective cash flow

3. Value reflects the level of risk into the rate of return

4. Value is influenced by liquidity

E. Levels of value 0.5%

1. Lack of control (minority vs. control)

2. Marketable vs. non-marketable

3. Strategic and investment value


A. NACVA Standards 1.5%

B. Ethical considerations 1.0%

C. Communicating and reporting analysis and results 1.0%

D. Roles of the valuation analyst in litigation services 1.0%


A. Defining the engagement 1.0%

1. Valuation date and its importance

2. Structure of the entity

3. Interest being valued

4. Purpose and objective of valuation

5. Standard of value and premise of value

6. Conflict checks

B. Engagement Letters 1.0%

1. Purpose

2. Content

C. Acceptance 1.0%

1. Experience

2. Staffing

3. Expectations


A. International Sources of Data 1.5%

B. Economic Environment 1.5%

1. Macro-environment

2. Micro-environment

3. Relationship of economic activity to the valuation

C. Industry background 3.0%

1. Economic data

2. Structure, trends, and life cycle

3. Market and competitive analysis

D. Company background 3.0%

1. Company structure and ownership

2. Site visit and interviews with key personnel

3. History and nature

4. Economic data (cost structure, pricing power, marginal analysis)

5. SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats)


A. Financial statements 4.5%

1. Source (audited/reviewed/compiled/tax returns/internal)

2. Number of years to obtain

3. Common size

4. Trend analysis

5. Ratios

6. Comparative analysis

a) Specific company

b) Industry averages

B. Adjustments to financial statements 4.5%

1. Normalizing

a) Control vs. non-control

b) Discretionary

c) Reasonable compensation analysis

d) Extraordinary/non-recurring

2. Operating vs. non-operating items

3. Off-balance sheet and unrecorded items

C. Statistical Analysis 3.0%

1. Measures of central tendency (arithmetic, harmonic, geometric means)

2. Measures of dispersion (including variance and standard deviation)

3. Statistical strengths of numerical relationships (including covariance, correlation, coefficient of determination, and coefficient of variation)

4. Linear regression

D. Types of benefit streams and selection 3.5%

1. Selection of appropriate time periods (including mid-year convention)

2. Selection of appropriate type of income/cash flow

3. Growth assumptions

a) Trend line projected

b) Constant

c) Erratic

d) Level

e) Declining growth approaches

E. Historical vs. projection based on considerations

F. Relating effects due to economic/industry events and trends

G. Pass-through entities – tax effecting of the benefit stream


A. Income approach 10%

1. General theory

2. Defining applicable income/cash flow

3. Sources of data

4. Capitalization vs. discount rates

5. Commonly used methods

a) Discounted economic income/cash flow method (DCF) (multi-stage model)

(1) The method is applied using cash flow available to invested capital

(2) The method is applied using cash flow available to equity

b) Capitalized economic income/cash flow method (CCF), including Gordon Growth

Model (constant growth model)

(1) The method is applied using cash flow available to invested capital

(2) The method is applied using cash flow available to equity

c) Excess earnings (cash flow) method

d) Dividend paying capacity

B. Market approach 8.0%

1. General theory

2. Commonly used methods

a) Transactions in subject companys stock

b) Transactions/sales of companies similar to subject

(1) Guideline public companies

(a) General theory

(b) Selecting guideline companies

i) Sources of data

ii) Size adjustments

(c) Equity vs. invested capital (including multiples)

(d) Selection of appropriate time periods

(e) Selection of appropriate multiples

i) Adjusting for growth, size, and company specific risk

(2) Guideline merged and acquired companies

(a) General theory

(b) Sources of data/relevant transactional databases

(c) Consideration of the selection of data points

C. Asset Approach 6.0%

1. General theory

2. Sources of data

3. Commonly used methods

a) Book value

b) Net tangible value

c) Adjusted net asset method (intangible and tangible assets)

d) Excess earnings method

e) Liquidation method (forced or orderly)

4. Identifying and valuing intangible assets

a) Approaches and methods

b) Estimated life

c) Impairment

5. Off-balance sheet and unrecorded items (including tax issues)

D. Sanity Checks 2.0%

1. General theory

2. Sources of data

3. Commonly used methods

a) Industry formulas (“Rules of Thumb”)

b) Justification of purchase

E. Reconciliation of indicated values 2.0%


A. Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) 6.0%

1. Risk free rate

2. Equity risk premium

3. Beta (ß) including un-levered and re-levered

B. Build-up method and Modified CAPM 5.5%

1. Risk free rate

2. Equity risk premium

3. Beta (ß) including un-levered and re-levered

4. Size risk premium

5. Industry risk premium

6. Company specific risk

7. Long-term sustainable growth

8. Other

C. Weighted average cost of capital 4.0%

D. Converting after tax risk rates to pre-tax rates 1.0%

E. Other recognized methods (e.g. Gordon Growth, Arbitrage Pricing, Fama- French Three Factor, Market Multiples, Risk Rate Component Model) 1.0%


A. Levels of value and effect on discounts and premiums 2.0%

1. Synergistic value

2. Control value

3. Non-controlling, marketable value

4. Non-controlling, non-marketable value

B. Adjustments for Control Issues 3.5%

1. General theory

2. Sources of data

3. Ownership characteristics

4. Magnitude

5. Relationship to how benefit stream is defined

C. Adjustments for Marketability Issues 3.5%

1. General theory

2. Sources of data

3. Ownership characteristics

4. Restrictions on transferability

5. Magnitude

6. Models

D. Discounts and premiums—understanding the empirical studies 2.0%

E. Subsequent events 1.0%

F. Other valuation discounts and adjustments (e.g. Key Person, Blockage, Restrictive Agreement, Lack of Voting, Lack of Liquidity, Contingent Liabilities) 1.0%


A. Intangible assets 2.0%

B. Debt securities 0.5%

C. Convertible securities 0.5%

D. Preferred stock 0.5%

E. Stock options 0.5%

F. Voting vs. Non-voting stock 0.5%

G. Professional vs. practice goodwill 0.5%

H. Other special purpose valuations (e.g. Fair Value, Mergers and Acquisitions, Pension Benefits, Insurance policies) 0.5%

Total 100%

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Financial cheat sheet


Warren Buffett Investing Cheat Sheet: These Are some of His precise Investments | Resources

Warren Buffett is the richest wealth manager on this planet, with a internet price of over $115 billion. He ranked #5 on the area's actual-time billionaires record published with the aid of Forbes. Buffett is regularly considered a "guru" in the funding world, is typical for his price investing techniques and infrequently makes a speciality of investing in enormous-cap equities in preference to buying and selling speculative shares.

He believes in purchasing securities and preserving them indefinitely, thereby reaping the benefits of compounding capital positive factors. while Buffett openly says that he has made many error right through his profession, "over time, it takes simply just a few winners to work wonders."

Buffett's funding portfolio might look small and focused in industry leaders, but it surely has delivered stellar returns over the last few many years, propelling his web price noticeably.

one of the vital properly holdings in Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway comply with.

Occidental Petroleum

Occidental Petroleum Corp. (NYSE:OXY) is one in all Buffett's appropriate oil holdings. though many countries have pledged to cut back their oil consumption in the pastime of decreasing complete carbon emissions, recent geopolitical activities display that the demand for oil is right here to dwell, at least within the short time period.

while the COVID-19 pandemic turned into an immense roadblock for the oil sector, business leaders right now recuperated to generate checklist earnings remaining yr. OXY's annual gross income amounted to $24.57 billion for fiscal 12 months 2022, reflecting a 50.eight% upward thrust 12 months-over-year. Buffett owns over 224 million shares of OXY, valued at about $13.18 billion, as of June 30, 2023.

Occidental Petroleum's efforts to restructure its operations in gentle of the world pledge to reduce carbon emissions could make it a promising inventory to buy and hold. The enterprise currently pledges to obtain net-zero emissions in its operations and energy use through 2040 and complete net-zero carbon stock with the aid of 2050. To this end, OXY received Carbon Engineering in August 2023.

Story continues

united states of americacurrently has a value goal of $seventy four on OXY inventory, which reflects a possible upside of virtually 21%. having said that, ny-based mostly Susquehanna international community has a favorable score on Occidental Petroleum inventory with a cost goal of $78. This displays a potential upside of over 27%.

Don’t miss: Kraft Heinz

Kraft Heinz Co. (NASDAQ:KHC) is a different certainly one of Buffett's favourite shares. The enterprise has been benefitting from rising commodity costs over the past couple of years, raising its earnings suggestions for fiscal 2023. It expects its biological internet sales to rise inside the range of four%-6% yr-over-year in fiscal 2023.

"We laid out a series of action plans within the starting of the yr to drive market share and quantity growth, and i'm happy to say we noticed development right through the quarter as our crew carried out towards these plans. we will stay concentrated on our standard strategy to power top-line profitable boom," talked about Miguel Patricio, CEO and Chair of Kraft Heinz.

whereas Buffett referred to in 2019 that he "overpaid" for Kraft Heinz, he believes it to be a "very, very mighty" manufacturer name. He at the moment holds over 325 million shares of KHC, which are valued at over $eleven.fifty six billion (as of June 2023).

bank of the us presently has a "buy" score on KHC with a cost goal of $40, reflecting a possible upside of 25%. Britain-based mostly multinational economic institution Barclays holds an "Equal-Weight" rating on Kraft Heinz, with a value target of $36. This displays a possible upside of up to 12.5%.


Coca-Cola Co. (NYSE:KO) is considered one of Buffett's "secret sauce(s)" of his investment approach, generating tens of millions in passive revenue for his business, Berkshire Hathaway.

KO inventory has delivered $704 million in dividend returns to Buffett's company in 2022 and currently money owed for five% of Berkshire Hathaway's net price. aside from this, Buffett's preliminary funding of $1.three billion in Coca-Cola stock in 1994 is now valued at $25 billion (as of fiscal yr 2022), reflecting over 1820% return on investment, no longer contemplating dividend returns.

while KO stock has delivered disappointing returns over the past 12 months as it plunged by over 4% over the last year, its dividend returns catch up on terrible share expense performance. The inventory at the moment will pay $0.46 per share in dividends annually, yielding 3.26% on the present cost.

examine subsequent:

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this article Warren Buffett Investing Cheat Sheet: These Are some of His precise Investments at first appeared on


© 2023 Benzinga does not provide investment tips. All rights reserved.


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